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A complete fertilization program for gladiolus

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Using Haifa's fertilizers, The fertilization program will help you grow beautiful gladiolus

Soil :The gladiolus can be grown in most types of soil, provided they are well aerated and drained. Most light-colored varieties are sensitive to lime soils, chlorosis may develop in such conditions due to low availability of micro-nutrients.
Optimal pH is 6.5-7.5.

 

Spacing & plant density: 7-10 cm between the plants within the row.

  • Rows 60-70 cm. part, evenly distributed across the field; or-
  • Pairs of  rows, 50 cm in between, and 70 cm between the pairs. 
  • Small bulbs (size 12-14) : 180,000 units/Ha.
  • Large bulbs (size 16) : 150,000 units/Ha

Base dressing

Nutrient requirements

Recommended fertilizers

N

P2O5

K2O

AS

TSP

SOP

--Kg/Ha--

--Kg/Ha--

*Larger P2O5 rates apply to soils low in phosphorous (e.g. acidic soils)
 
AS = Ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, 20-0-0
TSP = Triple Superphosphate, 0-46-0
SOP = Potassium sulfate, K2SO4, 0-0-50
The a/m fertilizers should be worked mechanically into the soil prior to planting the bulbs.

Fertigation (calculated considering app. 130 days of growing cycle, and irrigation at a rate of 10m3/Ha/day)
Secondary- and micronutrients should be addressed according to local conditions.

A. Start applying fertilizers at the following rate with the irrigation only 10 days after planting, and until inflorescence stem emerges.

Nutrient requirements

Recommended fertilizers

N

P2O5

K2O

AS

MAP

Multi-K

g/m3 water (=ppm)

g/m3 water (=ppm)

MAP = MonoAmmonium Phosphate, NH4 H2 PO4 , 12-61-0
Multi-K = Potassium nitrate, KNO3, 13-0-46
B. Shift to the following regime when inflorescence stem has emerged, until harvest.

Nutrient requirements

Recommended fertilizers

N

K2O

Multi-K

g/m3 water (=ppm)

g/m3 water (=ppm)

General

The gladiolus grows from a bulb with 3-8 scaly leaves. The shoots sprout from the center of these leaves. Usually when the bulbs start to germinate, one or maybe two shoots become activated and start to grow. Upon germination, the roots develops two types of thick root which decrease in size anchoring the root down in the soil, and fibre like roots which are the active roots and reach a maximum depth of 40 cm. With the advent of the second leaf a flower develops at the tip of the plant. This stage where the plant develops two leaves is considered to be most critical, since if there is a shortage of water or nourishment at this stage the damage is very serious in that either there will be no flower, or the number of blossoms on the flower will be small.

 

Once the plant has five green leaves, the stem bearing the flower becomes longer and the petals are produced. With the development of the second green leaf, the secondary bulb begins to form and the original bulb begins to become distorted with the sapping of its nourishment. The development of the new bulb is slow until after flowering when it begins to develop. For this purpose about 4 leaves are have to be left on the stalk after cutting the flowers.

 

During flowering, several small bulbs are formed called brott. These may be grown for a season until a mature bulb forms.

 

The gladiolus is day-length insensitive, and can bloom all year round on condition that it has a suitable quantity of light and temperature, but can be limited by a cold winter and cloudy days. It should be noted that the efficiency of the gladiolus is very high due to the photosynthesis of the shape of the leaves and the location of the stomata.

 

Because of the light and temperature there is a difference in the number of months that it grows, being in winter 4 months, and in summer 2,5 months. The bulbs require a dormant period in a cool storage place with a temperature of 4° for a duration of 6-8 weeks, thereafter a period of heating up to 27° for a period of 2 weeks in order to achieve a reawakening.
In winter it is advisable to grow on a sunny slope. It is sensitive to frost and winds, and the plot should be chosen accordingly.

 

Irrigation
The gladiolus is sensitive to a lack of water, and therefore it is advisable to water daily. The critical stages are 2 leaves and 5 leaves.
Following the harvest, watering may take place weekly. Generally, 600 mm are given in summer, and 100-200 mm in winter.
Here, below are the recommendations for gladiolus plots grown in arid conditions and harvested in the months October-April:

Soil

Planting- Sprouting mm/day

Sprouting- Flowering (mm/day)

Flowering (mm/day)

Until bulbs are harvested (mm/day)

Heavy

1,5-2

3.5-4

2,5

3.5-4

Medium

3

3.5-4

4-5

3.5-4

In light soils, the irrigation intervals are 1-3 days, in heavy soils 2-4 days.
Prior to planting it is customary to give 40 mm and following planting 30mm for germination. In brott nurseries for the production of bulbs the quantity of water given is similar to that of the first two stages of cultivation for flowers.

Growing Seasons

Can be grown year round. The differing number of months it takes to grow according to the season of the year should be taken into account in order to attain a status of flowers all year round.

 

Recommendations for drip irrigation setup.

  • Grow in pairs with a lateral down the middle of the pairs, i.e. 1,20 cm.
  • Distance between drippers 0,5m - all types of equipment may be used.
  • Short watering intervals of 1-3 days according to soil texture are recommended.

Gladiolus - Fertilization program in Holland

A. Average recommended rates of nutrients (Kg/Ha):

N

P

K

Mg

B. Soil Application

Base-Dressing (Kg/Ha):

N

P

K

Mg

Note: All the recommended amount of P and Mg should be applied as base-dressing.

Side-Dressing (Kg/Ha)

Nutrient requirement

Recommended fertilizer

N

P

K

CN

Multi-K

Application dates

Weeks after planting

Nutrients (Kg/Ha)

Fertilizers (Kg/Ha)

N

K

CN

Multi-K

5-6

50

-

280

-

9-10

26

75

-

200

13-14

50

-

280

-

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