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Haifa's knowledge center comes to your assist not only by sharing our own proffesional articles, but by aggregating articles from all over the web.

Potassium and nitrogen use efficiency

Role of potassium in improving nitrogen use efficiency
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Controlling transplant shock in lettuce

New research undertaken by applied horticultural research shows that drenching lettuce seedlings with potassium nitrate at transplanting can increase yields by 20 percent
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The positive impact of potassium nitrate on wheat yield | Adriano Altissimo

The field trial results statistically and strongly supported the hypothesis that foliar application of potassium nitrate produces higher yield
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PNA literature library

The potassium nitrate association (PNA) offers a wide variety of articles and field trials summaries, showing the proven benefits of potassium nitrate
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Foliar potassium improves cantaloupe marketable and nutritional quality | G.E. Lester, J.L. Jifon, and W.M. Stewart

Potassium is important in optimizing both crop yield and economic quality. Root activity and K uptake are generally reduced during the reproductive phase of crop development.

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Potassium Nutrition of cotton | K. Raja Reddy, Harry F. Hodges and Jac Varco

Knowledge of potassium (K) requirements for cotton growth and development is needed for efficient production. Fertilization of cotton with K is a complex issue, because soils vary widely in terms of K-supplying capacity and K fertilizer adsorption.
Growth processes are limited when leaf K concentrations are below 2%, and visual symptoms of K deficiencies are difficult to identify. Critical foliar K concentration required for optimum photosynthesis,  and  thus  the  productivity  of  cotton  (95%  of  the maximum), is 2.1%. Several processes are severely affected below that critical foliar K level.

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Effect of fertigation strategy on nitrate availability and nitrate leaching under micro-irrigation | Blaine Hanson, Jan Hopmans and Jirka Simunek

Micro-irrigation has the potential of precisely applying water and fertilizer both in location and in quantity. Fertigation is the process of applying fertilizers through the irrigation water. However, under micro-irrigation, soil water content, root distribution, and solute concentration vary spatially around the drip line. This variability could result in fertilizer applied through the irrigation system being leached beyond the area of the highest root density unless careful management of both water and fertilizer is practiced.
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Fertigation basics | Charles M. Burt

Fertigation is widely practiced with drip irrigation, yet remains very unsophisticated.  Major areas which need improvement are (i) making certain the irrigation system applies water with a high DU (uniformity), (ii) using proper injection pumps and protection hardware, (iii) recognizing that chemicals can interact with each other and with water to form precipitates which will clog emitters, (iv) understanding of nutrient ratios in plants and soil, (v) recognizing that nitrogen fertilization requires attention to the type of nitrogen, and (vi) developing programs for spoon-feeding chemicals.  This paper covers the first 4 topics, plus discusses some specific fertilizers.
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How potassium nutrition can suppress soybean aphids | Tom Bruulsema, Christina DiFonzo and Claudio Gratton

The soybean aphid has become the most important insect pest of soybeans in the North- east and Midwest regions of North America. It often damages soybean  plants that  are K-deficient more than  those  that  are not. Recent research in Wisconsin and  Michigan has found that K-deficient soybeans can in some, but not all, instances suffer more from aphids than soybeans without K limitation, and that the causes may be related to amino acid composition of the phloem sap.
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Managing micronutrients in the greenhouse | Douglas A. Bailey and Paul V. Nelson

Proper plant nutrition is essential for successful greenhouse production of floricultural crops. As growers move towards substrates that do not contain mineral soil, micronutrient status of substrates and plants becomes more important. This bulletin outlines the major micronutrient problems that can be encountered in greenhouse production and outlines application treatments to correct micronutrient imbalances.
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Boosting seed cotton yields in punjab with potassium | M.S. Brar and K.N. Tiwari

Cotton production in India has stagnated at a level far below its potential - the main reason being unbalanced and low rates of fertilizers. A review of key research on improved potassium (K) management practices provides a clear picture of the potential yield and economic benefits available to farmers.
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Role of fertigation in horticultural crops: citrus | Ashok K. Alva

Advances in micro-irrigation techniques, drip and under-tree sprinklers, have  facilitated more widespread adoption of fertigation,  especially for perennial  crops, including citrus.  It is well known that fertigation improves nutrient uptake efficiency. Therefore, is preferable to dry fertilizer broadcast application because it increases the yield, enhances crop quality, and minimizes loss of nutrients, i.e., leaching of NO3-N below the root zone.

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Best management practices for turf and lawn fertilization | Dr. Mike Stewart

The first step in the establishment of an attractive and functional lawn or any other turf area is the is the selection of an appropriate grass. An adequate fertilization program is among the affecting turf quality. Proper fertilization is often the most important factors most cost-effective means of achieving an attractive lawn. Several factors should be considered when determining the proper kind and amount of fertilizer to apply to lawns and other turf areas.
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Higher yields and reduction of incidence of stem brittle in white carnation | Yermiyahu, U., and U. Kafkafi

Calyx splitting and high percentage of stem brittle was observed in the carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), cv. Standard White Candy, grown under fertigation on a sandy loam soil, in the coastal plateau of Israel, 18 km east from the Mediterranean coast. The hypothesis was tested that the incidence of this disorder could be reduced by raising the potassium (K) concentration in the plant by increasing K and the NNO3: N-NH4 ratio in the fertigation medium. The increase in K levels in the  fertigation media was reflected in the content of K in the plant dry matter(DM). The beneficial effects of the KNO3 treatment probably resulted because of the absence of N-NH4 in the fertigation media. These beneficial effects were expressed in the form of a17 per cent increase in flower yield and a minimizing of calyx splitting.
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Effects of fertigation regime on blossom end rot of vegetable fruits | Asher Bar-Tal and Benny Aloni

The relationships between blossom end rot (BER) of vegetable fruits and fertigation regimes are reviewed. Many fruit disorders are affected by nutrient deficiencies or unbalanced nutrition: BER, gold specks, green back, blotchy ripening, color spots, malformation, hollowness and fruit cracking. Numerous studies have shown that BER is a mineral disorder and that its occurrence could be reduced by improving the supply of specific nutrients. The sensitivity of vegetable  fruits to BER varies greatly among cultivars,   environmental conditions and fertigation regimes. Some interactions between environmental conditions and fertigation regime are presented. The relation between BER and Ca nutrition is described and discussed in detail. The possibility that Mn may also play a role in the development of BER is discussed.
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Fertigation in micro-irrigated horticultural crops: vegetables | Salvadore J. Locascio

Fertigation is the application of soluble nutrients via the irrigation water; its use in vegetable production has increased with the introduction of polyethylene mulch and drip irrigation, and it is an efficient means to apply fertilizer to the root zone. For efficient use of fertigation, water application and nutrient application must be precisely managed, to prevent over-watering and nutrient leaching.
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Fertigation recipes for selected crops in the Mediterranean region | I. Papadopoulos, C. Metochis and N. Seraphides

Fertigation increases efficient use of water and fertilizers, produces higher yields, improves quality of the production and protects environment. To ensure uniform distribution of water and fertilizers, the irrigation system must be properly designed and operated. The choice of suitable fertilizers is also very important and must be based on several factors like nutrient form, purity, solubility and cost. To implement a fertigation program, particularly  under intensive greenhouse production, good knowledge is required of water and nutrient requirements over the growing season. The fertigation model developed to be used at farmers level concerns drip-irrigated greenhouse tomato, pepper, cucumber and melon. It takes into account the amount of nutrients which may be available to the crop from soil and calculates for a target yield the quantities of N, P and K fertilizers which may be supplied through the irrigation stream over the growing season.
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Fertigation-chemigation in protected agriculture | I. Papadopoulos

Fertigation-Chemigation are regular and widely accepted practices for fertilization and plant protection under protected agriculture. With fertigation, the nutrients in the form og soluble fertilizers anticipated to most crops needs according to their stage of development, are applied with the irrigation water. The application of plant protectants through irrigation system such as herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, nematicides, growth regulators and bio control agents has been also expanded rapidly during the last few decades.   However, the application of any chemical to soil and crops may have envarionmental implications, in this work crtical thecnical aspects, the current knowladge anf futuer prospects of fertigation-chemigation for crops yield and improve quality on degradation-free and sustainable basis, are presented.
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Irrigation water quality for container-grown plants | Brian Whipker

Water is an important resource for growing plants. Plants, by weight, are comprised of 90 to 95 percent water. Chemicals in irrigation water can impact the growth of plants, especially container-grown plants, due to their restricted root growth and the high potential for change of soilless media with relatively low buffering capacities.
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Irrigation systems and nutrient sources for fertigation | A. Fares and F. Abbas

Advances in micro-irrigation techniques have facilitated greater adoption of the application of fertilizers to crops through irrigation water; the technique is termed as fertigation. If fertilizers are applied through irrigation systems, savings of 29–78% in application costs may result due to the improved efficiency of fertilizer application, low fertilizer leaching, precise nutrient application, and right-amount and right-time fertilizer application. Although no significant increases in crop yield have been reported (Alva et al. 2005), uptake of major plant nutrients, i.e., nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium, is higher with fertigation than with conventional methods (Papadopoulos 1988).
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Irrigation management with saline water | Dana O. Porter and Thomas Marek

One of the most common water quality concerns for irrigated agriculture is salinity. All major irrigation water sources contain dissolved salts. These salts include a variety of natural occurring dissolved minerals, which can vary with location, time, and water source. Many of these mineral salts are micronutrients, having beneficial effects. However, excessive total salt concentration or excessive levels of some potentially toxic elements can have detrimental effects on plant health and/or soil conditions.
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Plant tissue analysis and interpretation for vegetable | G. Hochmuth, D. Maynard, C. Vavrina, E. Hanlon and E. Simonne

Plant tissue testing is another tool for use in achieving a high degree of precision in fertilizer management. Timely tissue testing can help diagnose suspected nutrient problems or can simply assist in learning more about fertilizer management efficiency. Improved fertilization management for vegetables is important in view of today's need to reduce production costs, conserve natural resources, and minimize possible negative environmental impacts. These goals can be achieved through optimum management of the fertilizers applied.
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Soil test - Interpretation guide | E.S. Marx, J. Hart and R.G. Stevens

Regular soil testing is an important element in nutrient management. You can use soil tests as a diagnostic tool or to identify trends through time. Soil testing laboratories use different test methods, which may influence results and sufficiency ranges. Therefore, the sufficiency ranges in this publication are accurate only for the test methods listed.
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Potassium Requirements of Pulse Crops | Ch. Srinivasarao, Masood Ali, A.N. Ganeshamurthy, and K.K.

In India, pulses are grown mostly on marginal and sub-marginal lands without proper inputs. Many field experiments on various pulse crops show yield benefits from K application. Improved K supply also enhances biological nitrogen (N) fixation and protein content of pulse grains.
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Managing potassium for crop production

A corn crop takes up nearly as much potassium (K) as it does nitrogen (N), yet management of each nutrient is entirely different. Whereas harvesting 125 bushels of corn grain per acre removes only 35 lbs of potash (K2O), harvesting 21 tons of silage per acre carries away 160 lbs of K2O; and the voracious appetite of a 5-ton per-acre alfalfa crop takes 230 lbs of K2O per acre from a field. Yet, managing potassium for each of these crops is relatively simple because of the reaction of K with soil, a reaction completely unlike the behavior of N in soil.
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Potassium fertilization for pineapple: Effects on plant growth and fruit yield | Luiz Antonio Junqueira Teixeira, José Antonio Quaggio, Heitor Cantarella, Estêvão Vicari Mellis

 A field experiment with pineapple was carried in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, with the objective of investigating the effects of rates and sources of potassium fertilizer on plant growth and fruit yield. Plant growth and fruit yield were evaluated. Biomass accumulation of pineapple plants was impaired by chlorine added with potassium chloride. Fruit yield increased with potassium fertilization. At high rates of K application, fertilization with K2SO4 showed better results than with KCl. Detrimental effects of KCl were associated with excess of chlorine
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Evaluation of Controlled- release Fertilizers for Young Citrus Trees | Mongi Zekri and Robert C.J. Koo

Controlled-release sources of N and K were compared with soluble sources on young orange trees.The effects of these fertilizers on leaf mineral concentration, soil chemical analysis, and tree growth were evaluated for 3 years. Soluble fertilizers were generally more readily available but had shorter residual effects on leaves and soil than controlled-release fertilizers. With the use of controlled-release fertilizers, application frequency was reduced from a total of 15 to six applications with no adverse effects on tree growth, leaf mineral composition, or soil fertility during the first 3 years. Combining soluble and controlled-release fertilizers in a plant nutrition program offers an economical and effective strategy for citrus growers
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Potassium Fertilization of Cotton | A. Ozzie Abaye; Extension Agronomist, Alternative Crops, Virginia Tech

Potassium (K) is an essential nutrient for normal plant growth and development, which plays a particularly important role in fiber development. Potassium defi¬ciency results in decreased fiber quality and lowered yields. If K is limited during active fiber growth, there is a reduction in the turgor pressure of the fiber result¬ing in less cell elongation and shorter fibers at maturity. Anything which restricts root growth, such as disease, insect damage, nematodes, root pruning, poor drainage, soil acidity, or compaction, reduces nutrient uptake and may increase K deficiency
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North Dakota Fertilizer Recommendation Tables and Equations | D.W. Franzen

soil test recommendation tables based on field research data obtained in North Dakota, South Dakota, western Minnesota and the Canadian Prairie Provinces
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Eggplant Yield in Response Potassium Fertilization on Sandy Soil | G.J. Hochmuth, R.C. Hochmuth, and M.E. Donley, E.A. Hanlon

‘Classic’ eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) responses to K fertilization were evaluated in Spring and Fall 1991 at Live Oak, Fla., on soils testing low in Mehlich-1 extractable K. Total season yield leveled off at 51.1 t•ha-1 with 94 kg K/ha fertilization in spring and at 53.3 t•ha-1 with 60 kg K/ha in fall. Critical K concentrations (in grams per kilogram) in whole leaves were »45  at first flowering, 35 at early fruiting, 30 during harvest, and 28 at the end of seven harvests. Fresh petiole-sap K critical concentrations (in milligrams per liter) were »4500 to 5000 before harvest and 4000 to 4500 during harvest. Less than 3500 mg K/liter in fresh sap indicated K deficiency in fruiting plants. The Mehlich-1 soil extractant procedure predicted similar responses at the two sites; however, yield responses showed that the two sites differed in fertilization requirements. Fertilizer recommendations for K at both sites exceeded eggplant K requirements
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Summary of N, P, and K Research with Eggplant in Florida | George Hochmuth and Ed Hanlon

Current eggplant fertilization recommendations are based on published field research, and a compilation of this literature contained in this document will assist with making valid fertilizer recommendations that are both commercially viable and that reduce risk of environmental consequences in adjacent water bodies
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IFAS Standardized Fertilization Recommendations for Vegetable Crops | George J. Hochmuth and Edward A. Hanlon

This publication presents in abbreviated form the fertilization recommendations for vegetable crops based on soil tests performed by the IFAS Extension Soil Testing Laboratory (ESTL). It contains the basic information from which ESTL soil-test reports and fertilization recommendations are generated
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