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The complete recommendation for the fertilization of beans

Which fertilizer gives the best result for the fertilization of dry beans? And which one is preferable for snap beans or broad beans? Find out in our thorough fertilization program

 

Fertilization of french beans

Growing method: Open field.
Plant density: 100,000 - 350,000 plants / ha.  
Expected yield: 9-20 ton/ha, depending on variety and method of  harvesting  (manual or mechanized).

 

Sensitivities:

  1. Salinity. The crop is very intolerant to salinity in soil and water.
  2. pH. The crop is very sensitive to pH<6.0 . Mg deficiency may occur in acid soils.
  3. Micronutrients. The crop is sensitive to excessive Boron and to deficiencies of Copper, Molybdenum and particularly Zinc.

 

 

 

Macronutrients uptake (kg/ha) at a yield of 13 t/ha

 

N

P2O5

K2O

MgO

CaO

129

21

90-100

26

60

 

 

Base dressing (kg/ha)

 

N

AS*

P2O5

SSP**

K2O

SOP**

21

100

40-70

200-350

50

100

 

 

Fertilizers should be well mixed into the soil, bearing in mind the plant’s sensitivity to high salt concentration.
* AS = Ammonium Sulfate (21-0-0).
** SSP = Single superphosphate (0-20-0).
***SOP = Potassium sulphate (0-50-0) partly soluble.

 

 

 

Fertigation

 

Growth stage

Rate (kg/ha/day)

N

P2O5

K2O

Urea

MAP*

Multi-K**

Establishment

0.75

1.0

0.75

1.3

1.6

1.6

Vegetative - Flowering

1.0

1.0

1.5

0.8

1.6

3.6

Fruit set – End of harvest

0.75

0.5

2.3

-

0.8

5.0

 

 

* MAP = Mono-Ammonium Phosphate (12-61-0)
** Multi-K = Potassium nitrate (13-0-46)

 

 

 

Points to consider

  • The application of fertilizers After sowing by fertigation is important in order to increase the availability of nutrients.
  • It is important to include nitrate fertilizer relatively frequently (with every irrigation cycle) until well-developed foliage has been built up.
  • Potassium should be applied in increased amounts while pods are starting their intensive development.
  • K/N ratio should preferably be 3/1.
  • Multi-K is absolutely essential at this stage as sole K source because it is fully water soluble and chloride-free. Potassium nitrate is fully consumed by the plants and thus, no salts will accumulate in the soil. This is therefore, the only way to avoid salinity, to which this crop is extremely sensitive.
    Multi-K is advantageous also due to the K/N ratio of 3/1 found in it.

 

 

 

Optional complementary applications

Foliar application of Multi-NPK (12-2-44)


Application rate: 1-2% ; 3-4 Kg/Ha.
Application timing: Start applications when first flowers appear. repeat sprays during pod development until harvest at 7-10 days intervals.


Foliar application of Haifa MAP (12-61-0)


Application rate: 0.5 -1% ; 2-3 Kg/Ha.
Application timing: Start applications when first flowers appear. repeat sprays until pod formation at 7-10 days intervals.

 

Fertilization of dry beans

Macro elements removed by 1 ton marketable product

 

 

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

S

---------------------------------------------------Kg / ton-----------------------------------------

36.0

5.0

12.0

1.1

1.1

2.5

 

 

Source: Kinoch: VOLHOUBARE LANDBOU, RSA. Processed by Frans Lourens, Haifa, RSA May, 1999.

 

 

 

Fertilization of green beans

Macro elements removed by 1 ton marketable product

 

 

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

S

---------------------------------------------------Kg / ton-----------------------------------------

2.2

0.3

2.2

0.5

0.3

 

 

 

Source: Kinoch: VOLHOUBARE LANDBOU, RSA. Processed by Frans Lourens, Haifa, RSA May, 1999.

 

 

 

Plant analysis guide

Nutrient sufficiency ranges (source: A & L, Agronomy Handbook, Ankerman & Large Eds.)

 

 

Beans

N

S

P

K

Mg

Ca

Na

B

Zn

Mn

Fe

Cu

Al

Mo

-------------------- % --------------------

------ p.p.m --------

From

3.60

0.25

0.30

2.00

0.35

1.00

0.01

25

35

50

50

8

20

 
To

6.00

0.70

0.70

4.00

1.00

3.00

0.05

70

60

100

200

30

250

 

 

 

 

 

Plant part to sample

 

time of sampling Midgrowth
Plant part Petiole of 4th leaf from tip

 

 

 

 

Plant tissue sampling procedures

 

Stage of growth

Plant part

Prior to or at initial bloom, before pod set Fully developed leaves at top of plant

 

 

 

 

Snap beans

Growing method: Open field.
Plant density: 100,000 - 350,000 plants / ha.  
Expected yield: 9-20 ton/ha, depending on variety and method of harvesting  (manual or mechanized).
Days to maturity: 52 - 60.

 

Sensitivities:

  • Salinity. The crop is very intolerant to salinity in soil and water.
  • pH. The crop grows best at  pH 6.0-6.5. Micronutrient deficiencies/ toxicity may occur in more acid values. It is necessary to lime the soil 2-4 months prior to planting the beans.
  • Micronutrients. The crop is sensitive to excessive Boron and to deficiencies of Copper, Molybdenum and particularly Zinc.

 

 

 

Macronutrients to be supplied (kg/ha) at a yield of 13 t/ha

 

N

P2O5

K2O

MgO

CaO

90-110

80-90

100-130

17

50

 

 

Base Dressing

 

 

Apply all the P, Mg, Ca, and 1/3 of the N and 2/3 of the K, best as broad-casting on the entire area. Band placement below the seeding row is risky due to the susceptibility to fertilizer burn.

 

 

Side dressing


Apply 200-230 kg of Multi-K when beans are 3-4 weeks old.

 

 

 

Fertilization of broad beans

Macro elements removed by 1 ton marketable product

 

 

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

S

---------------------------------------------------Kg / ton-----------------------------------------

25.5

2.6

15.3

     

 

 

Source: Kinoch: VOLHOUBARE LANDBOU, RSA. Processed by Frans Lourens, Haifa, RSA May, 1999.

 

 

 

Soilless fertilization of beans

Nutrition database for beans

 

 

 

concentration

 

Rockwool

Rockwool (reuse drainage)

Plant – dry matter (7-8%)

Parameter

Nutrient Solution

Root Environ.

Nutrient Solution

Root Environ.

Guiding Range

Deficient

Excessive
EC (mS/cm)

1.7

 

 

 

     
 

(mg/l)

(mg/l)

(%)

NH4

18.0

 

 

 

     
N-NH4

13.8

 

 

 

     
K in sap        

 

   
K

215.1

 

 

 

 

   
Ca

130.3

 

 

 

 

   
Mg

30.4

 

 

 

4.20

 

 
N, total        

0.62

   
NO3

774.0

 

 

 

0.22

   
N-NO3

167.9

 

 

 

0.05

   
S, total        

0.43

   
SO4

108.1

 

 

 

0.62

   
P        

 

   
H2PO4

121.3

 

 

 

     
         

mg/Kg (ppm)

Fe

0.559

 

 

 

 

   
Mn

0.549

 

 

 

 

   
Zn

0.262

 

 

 

 

 

 

B

0.216

 

 

 

 

   
Cu

0.032

 

 

 

     
Mo

0.048

 

 

 

     

 

 

Important note: The a/m database was prepared to fit Dutch conditions (low transpiration and low EC of the water). Considerable and proportional reduction in the concentration of the macronutrients should be required to offset for lower quality water prevailing in other conditions.

 

Sources:

  • N. Straver. Nutrient solutions for vegetables and flowers grown in water or substrates. 10th Ed. 1994.
  • C. de Kreij, Sonneveld C., Warmenhoven M.G. and Straver N.A. Guide values for nutrient element contents of vegetables and flowers under glass. 3rd Ed. 1992.

 

 

 

Varieties recommended for fresh market

 

Variety Approx. days to maturity
Bush, green pod
Astro

52

Extender

50

Early harvest

52

Harvester

55

Half Runner Genuine White

55-60

 

 

Source: Snap Bean Production flyer \ Cooperative Extension Service, University of Georgia College of Agriculture, Athens.

 

 

 

Fertilization

Determine fertilizer needs by a soil test. In general, 600 to 800 pounds of 10-10-10 per acre is adequate if at least ½ of the fertilizer is placed 3 inches to the side and slightly below the seed. Do not use more than 600 pounds in band placement because beans are highly susceptible to fertilizer burn.

 

If you broadcast the fertilizer, increase the rates by about 1/3 to 1/2. Broadcasting eliminates the danger of burn. Sidedress with an additional 20 to 30 pounds of nitrate nitrogen when beans are three to four weeks old to bring total nitrogen applied up to approximately 100 pounds per acre. Additional nitrogen may be needed if heavy leaching rains occur. If magnesium and/or zinc are low in the soil, add these elements to the fertilizer.

 

Source: Snap Bean Production flyer \ Cooperative Extension Service, University of Georgia College of Agriculture, Athens.