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How to grow carrots with Haifa fertilizers

Fertilization recommendation for growing carrots with Haifa fertilizers, to achieve optimal plant nutrition & excellent yield
 

Growing medium: open field.
Plant population: 1,800,000-2,000,000 Seeds/ha.
Expected yield: 60-80 T/ha.

Important note: The application of chloride fertilizers should be avoided since this element severely reduces carotene content of the carrot.

 
 
 

Recommended rates of nutrients (Kg/ha):

 

N

P2O5

K2O

CaO

MgO

120

100

300

100

50

 
 
 

A. Base-Dressing

Apply at this stage the organic manure (20 T/ha), 20% of N and K2O and the entire amount of phosphate

 
 

Required nutrients (Kg/ha)

Recommended fertilizers (Kg/ha)

N

P2O5

K2O

MgO

SOP

SSP*

AN

Epsom salt**

30

75

60

65

110

530

100

500

 
 
* SSP = Single-superphosphate (19% P2O5).
** Epsom salt  = MgSO4 (13% MgO).
 
 
 

B. Side-Dressing

 

Days after
sowing

Nutrient demand (Kg/ha)

Recommended fertilizer

N

P2O5

K2O

AN

Multi-KMg*

30

45

-

120

35

310

60

45

-

120

35

310

total

90

-

240

70

620

 
 
*Multi-KMg = Multi-K enriched with Mg  (11-0-39 + 4%MgO).
 
 
 

Recommendations prevailing in the UK

Growing Medium: Open field.
Soil type: Sandy silt.
Cultivars: Royal Sluice PX55392 ; Nairobi.
Expected yield: 50 MT/ha.

 
 
 

Base-Dressing

 

N

P2O5

K2O

MgO

(Kg/Ha)

150

100

125

50

 
 
 
 

Top-Dressing

1. Multi-KMg 200 kg/ha, 86 days after sowing.
2. Foliar spray of boron and manganese.
 
 
 

Baby carrot – Fertilization program from South Africa^

Growth period: 80-120 days.
Yield: 35 MT/Ha.
 
 
 

N

P2O5

K2O

 

<----------------------Kg/Ha------------------------>

B.D.

40

345

120

T.D*

40

0

120

Total

80

150

240

 
 
* 75 Kg/Ha of K2O are fertigated during vegetative development, as Multi-K, combined with A.N.
Additional 55 Kg/Ha of K2O are sprayed as Multi-K during bulking up stage.
 
^ Farm: Crest International , Bapsfotein.
Source: O. Rottenberg, 1994.
 
 
 

Macro elements removed by 1 ton marketable product

(In Baby Carrot )
 
 
 

N

P2O5

K2O

CaO

Mg

S

---------------------------------------------------Kg / ton-----------------------------------------

3.8

1.37

6.0

1.4

1.66

1.5

 
 
 
 

“White” Carrots (parsnips)

Macro elements removed by 1 ton marketable product
(In Witwortel=White Carrot )
 
 

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

S

---------------------------------------------------Kg / ton-----------------------------------------

13.4

4.3

18.0

     
 
 
Source: Kinoch’s flyer, RSA. Processed by Frans Lourens, Haifa, RSA, May, 1999.
 
 
 

Plant analysis guide

Nutrient sufficiency ranges (source: A & L, Agronomy Handbook, Ankerman & Large Eds.)
 
 
Carrots

N

S

P

K

Mg

Ca

Na

B

Zn

Mn

Fe

Cu

Al

Mo

------------------------ % -------------------------

--------------- p.p.m ---------------
From

3.50

0.30

0.25

3.0

0.25

1.50

0.01

20

25

50

75

5

20

 
To

6.0

0.75

0.80

7.0

1.0

4.0

0.20

80

60

200

250

20

300

 
 
 
 
 

Plant part & sampling procedures

 
Growth stage Plant part
At mid-growth before root enlargement Petiole of young mature leaf
 
 
Source: http://www.hortnet.co.nz/publications/guides/fertmanual/vege2.htm#I7
 
 
 

Umbelliferae (carrots, parsnips, celery)

Nutrient requirements
Total nitrogen (kg N/ha):

 
 
Celery 350
Spring carrots 200
Carrots and parsnips 100
 
 
 
 

Target Olsen P values

 
 

Phosphate retention

 

0 - 40

41 - 75

76 - 100%

Carrots and parsnips

35 - 45

46 - 55

56 - 75

Celery

45 - 55

56 - 75

76 - 90

 
 
Recommended method of P application: Broadcast.
 
 
 

Target K values

 
 

Soil texture

 

Sand

Loam

Clay

Carrots and parsnips

8

10

12

Celery

12

15

20

 
 
Recommended method of K application: Broadcast and fertigation.
 
 
 

Optimum pH range

 
carrots 5.6 - 6.7
Parsnips 5.6 - 7.1
Celery 6.1 - 7.0
 
 
 
 

Nutrient uptake (kg/ha)

 
Crop

Yield

(Ton/ha)

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

Carrot

foliage

15

72

5

62

-

-

 

roots

80

121

27

194

-

-

Top-weight  

79

242

34

313

121

24

Royal Chantenny

31

96

16

165

21

6

Parsnips

roots

44

146

36

183

-

-

Celery  

80

307

79

984

228

38

 
 
 
 

Tissue analysis

Critical N, P and K concentrations (%) in whole plants:
 
 
   

Plant age (days)

   

40

80

120

160

Carrots

N

3.2

2.4

1.8

-

 

P

0.38

0.32

0.27

0.24

 

K

4.3

2.8

1.9

-

Parsnips

N

3.8

3.2

2.8

2.0

 

P

0.59

0.48

0.39

0.32

 

K

5.0

3.8

2.8

2.2

 
 
 
 

Specific deficiency symptoms

 

Carrots

N Uniformly pale yellow with fine leaflets.
P No yellowing, old leaves purple. Distinguish from carrot fly attack by examining damage on tap root and from carrot 'mottley dwarf' virus by yellow young leaves and red or purple older leaves.
S As for N, distinguish by plant analysis.
K Old leaves scorched and collapse, later entire petioles look water soaked before drying and collapsing.
Ca Water soaked appearance of petioles (like K) but more restricted, the distal part and leaf staying green initially. Roots may have a brown core.
Mg Similar to N deficiency but red tints near margins and leaves not so fine; can also be confused with 'mottley dwarf' disease; distinguish by analysis.
Mn Uniform pale yellowish-green; often patchy distribution in field.
Cu Youngest leaves very dark green and fail to open.
B Corky splits in petioles; roots split showing core, which may contain hollows, browning of skin on root giving dull appearance.
 

Parsnips

S New, pale leaves have sharply toothed margins and a fine network of recessed veins.
Ca Water soaked petiole resulting in collapse of leaflets.
Mn Marginal and interveinal chlorosis of most leaves; distinguished from Mg and K deficiency because chlorotic areas remain pale green rather than yellow and whole plant affected.
B Older, pale leaves may have a red margin; section of root shows discoloration around the central xylem.