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THE EFFECT OF SHEET SUPPLIES OF WHEAT WHEAT WINTER MICROFERTILITIES OF THE POLY-FID MARKET ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF GRAIN IN THE CONDITIONS OF ORYOL AREA

Dorogavtsev S.Yu. , Sobolev E.V.  , Tareeva M.M.  , A. Yu. Burtsev  , Gorbunov A.I.  , Romanov V.S.  , Kozar E.G.  , Ronen Yoav  , Kupriyanov A. 

Often in the soils of crop rotations of grain crops, including on black soil, the content of mobile forms of copper, manganese, zinc and other trace elements is low.Improving the efficiency of making micronutrients for grain crops and determining the best ways and doses of their introduction are topical issues that need to be addressed in order to increase the productivity of crops.The purpose of research is to identify the effectiveness of the use of microfertilizers of the company “Haifa Chemicals” in the technology of growing winter wheat on leached chernozem under conditions of the Oryol Region. Field production experiments were established in 2017-2018 on the basis of Orlovsky Leader LLC .Branch №5 ”located in Livensky district.Field experience with the use of Haifa Chemicals products: Poly-Feed micronutrients 19-19-19 + 1MgO + ME and Poly-Feed 6-15-38 + 3 + ME was laid on soft winter wheat varieties Moskovskaya-56.The control variant was the basic technological scheme used in the household for carrying out leaf dressings with mineral fertilizers together with the organic fertilizer Gumostim. As a result of the research, it has been established that the use of double foliar feeding with microfertilizer Poly-Feed 19-19-19 + 1MgO + ME in the tillering stage and at the end of flowering and a single Poly-Feed 6-15-38 + 3 + IU in the sub-flag phase - flag leaf, increases the height of the plants, as well as the productive characteristics of the ear : the size of the ear, the number of grains in the ear, the mass of grains and their best quality, which in general provides a reliable increase in the yield of grain of winter wheat.

At the same time, it was found that, due to leaf feeding, the impact of adverse weather conditions under which the development of winter wheat plants took place in 2018 and their productive properties were laid was leveled out. Due to relatively low additional costs, the use of complex fertilizers of the Poly-Feed brand for winter wheat is economically feasible and can bring additional economic income: based on the maximum level of minimum prices for the grain of the 2018 harvest, it will be 2.07-2.28 thousand rubles / ha regarding base technology.Thus, water-soluble fertilizers, which include microfertilizers Poly-Feed company "Haifa Chemicals" are recommended to domestic agricultural producers for mass introduction in practice of the technology of intensive sheet nutrition of grain and other crops.

 

Cereals are the most important structure-forming crops in the agro-industrial complex, forming the basis of state food security. Russia is one of the leading world powers - grain producers. The dynamics of gross grain harvesting is subject to great variability due to a number of different factors: weather and climatic conditions, cultivation technology, variety .But at the same time, thanks to the use of advanced technologies, the use of qualitatively new fertilizers, the introduction of new plant varieties, many unfavorable abiotic and biotic stress factors can be leveled. So, despite the fact that the year 2018 was unfavorable for the growth and development of plants and there was a significant decrease in grain yield compared with previous years (the gross grain harvest was about 110 million tons, including wheat - about 70 million tons), Russia is surely among the top five world leading wheat exporters [4].

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 1.Wheat production by country, 2016 (tons) [5]

 

China, including Taiwan 131 696 392
China without Taiwan 131 689 035
India 93 500 000
Russia 73,294,568
USA 62 859 050
Canada 30,486,700

 

Among wheat crops, winter wheat has the greatest value. This is due to the climatic conditions of a number of regions: winter crops make fuller use of precipitation in the autumn period, spring moisture; ripening before the spring, they leave from the first autumn frosts. In the formation of the domestic grain potential, the role of individual regions is not the same, since the territorial features of climatic and economic conditions predetermine significant differences in the conduct of economic activity. The Oryol region has the potential for the sustainable development of the grain industry and the self-sufficiency of its own food, but there is an objective need to develop a set of organizational and economic measures that contribute to increasing the sustainability of the effective functioning of the grain farm (Figure 1).

Fig.1 .The structure of grain production in the Oryol region [12].

 

It should be noted that often in the soils of crop rotations, including on chernozem, the content of mobile forms of copper, manganese, zinc and other microelements is low. Improving the efficiency of the introduction of micronutrients under crops by determining the optimal methods and doses of their introduction is one of the urgent issues of increasing the productivity of crops [6,7,8,9,10,11].

The purpose of research is to identify the effectiveness of the use of microfertilizers of the company “Haifa Chemicals” in the technology of growing winter wheat on leached chernozem under conditions of the Oryol Region.

Conditions and material for research

Field production experiments were established in 2017-2018 on the basis of Orlovsky Leader LLC .Branch №5 ”located in Livensky district of Oryol region.

Livensky district is located on the Central Russian Upland. The region has a continental climate .The average January temperature is -9.5 ° C, June - + 19.5 ° C. Precipitation is about 450-550 mm per year.Rain and heavy rains, hail is sometimes observed .The duration of the frost-free period is 140 - 145 days.The onset of the period with a steady average daily temperature above 5 ° C, which is conventionally considered to be the beginning of the growing season, falls throughout the region in mid-April.The sum of temperatures above 10 ° С varies within 2200-3000 ° С. The period with higher average daily air temperatures (above 10 ° C) begins at the beginning of May and ends on September 20-25, its duration is 135-145 days.Annually, there are droughts and dry winds of low and medium intensity on the territory of the region, which, despite the presence of good moisture reserves, although they inhibit plants during the growing season, there is no significant decrease in yield (southeastern winds).The average annual wind speed is up to 4 m / s. The climate is favorable for agricultural production and, especially, for the cultivation of grain crops.

The soil of the farm is represented by leached chernozem , the relief is flat, cut by beams and ravines, the slope is not more than 2 °.

 

The weather conditions of the growing season of 2018 had a significant impact on the development of plants, various microorganisms, and the effectiveness of agrochemical treatments.The conditions of the year were extreme for plants at different periods: periods with a high average daily temperature and drought gave way to cooling, when the temperature dropped well below 10 ° C at night. A severe drought was noted in the period from the end of May to the beginning of July (precipitation fell 5 times less than the monthly norm - only 15 mm) .In the second half of July, on the contrary, heavy rainfall was observed, 105 mm fell, which is 1.4 times higher than the monthly average.August was also characterized by a small amount of precipitation (Fig.2.3).

 

Fig.2. Rainfall during the growing season.

 

Fig.3.The temperature during the growing season.

 

 

Field experience with the use of the products of the company Haifa Chemicals: Poly-Feed microfertilizers 19-19-19 + 1MgO + ME and Poly-Feed 6-15-38 + 3 + IU was laid on soft winter wheat of variety Moscow-56.Wheat was sown on September 12, 2017. The seeding rate is 4.5-6.0 million units / ha. Depth of seeding is 5 cm. Agrotechnology - common for the zone.

Fertilizers Poly-Feed Company "Haifa Chemicals Ltd." designed for root and leaf dressings.These are fully water-soluble complex fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, as well as trace elements in chelated form EDTA. The line of this brand contains a wide range of nutrition ratios, including those registered on the territory of the Russian Federation (Table 2).Poly-Feed fertilizers are 100% nutrient-rich; do not contain sodium, chlorides, ballast and other compounds unsafe for plants; effective for many crops. Today it is a well-known trademark in the world market, in the Russian Federation and the CIS countries [14].The degree of solubility in Poly-Fida is up to 50 g in 100 ml of water.

 

Table 2. The compositio n of the used brands Poly-Feed,%

 

N total

Nno 3

NNH 4

NNH 2

P 2 O 5

K 2 O

MgO

SO 2

AT

Fe

Mn

Si

Zn

Mo

 

Poly Feed 19-19-19

nineteen

5.5

3.6

9.9

nineteen

nineteen

one

1.9

0.02

0.1

0.05

0.012

0.015

0,007

 

Poly Feed 6-15-38

6

6

-

-

15

38

3

1.9

0.04

0.2

0.095

0.022

0.024

0.012

 

The control variant was the basic technological scheme used in the household for carrying out leaf dressings with mineral fertilizers together with the organic fertilizer Gumostim.

Gumostim - ecologically safe, highly effective biologically active fertilizer of the humic nature.Especially effective under adverse conditions: drought, high humidity, sudden change in temperature, i.e. possesses high biological and antistress activity. The drug is designed to increase yields and improve the quality of agricultural crop products. Accelerates the entry of macro-, microelements into plants through the root system and through the surface of the leaves. Fertilizer is a dark brown liquid, soluble in water. Contains humic acids, amino acids, carboxylic acids, macro-, microelements. Humic fertilizer from peat has permits for use in the Russian Federation [15].

Experience scheme:

one. Control - four supplements, including 6 kg / ha of carbamide and Mg Sulfate (2.5 l / ha first, the rest - 2 l / ha); two top dressings Gumostim 1 l / hectare; two supplements with Ammonium sulfate 1.2 l / ha each. The consumption rate of the working fluid - 100 l / ha; background - Ammonium nitrate - 1 kg / ha + tank mixes with pesticides (Table. 3);

2 Option (experiment) - triple processing of Poly-Feed 19-19-19 + 1 + ME 5 kg / ha in the tillering phase, Poly-feed 6-15-38 + 3 + ME 4 kg / ha in the phase of the flag leaf, Poly- feed 19-19-19 + 1 + ME 5 kg / ha in the end of flowering phase; background of fertilizers (ammonium nitrate - 1 kg / ha) + tank mixes with pesticides (Table 4).

The treatment was carried out with the Mist 2M sprayer in the tank mixture according to the application scheme, the working fluid consumption rate was 200 l / ha. Experience laid in 5 replications. General view of the field is shown in Fig.4.

Fig.4 .General view of the field (wheat phase: milky wax ripeness).

 

Grain harvesting was carried out by direct combining on August 6. Crop accounting was carried out by weighing on truck scales. Losses during cleaning were minimal.

Table 3. The basic scheme of processing (control)

date of processing

Culture Development Phase

Economic option

(flow rate 100 l / ha)

Norm,

L (kg) / ha

05.23.2018

Pick up

Urea

6.0

Mg sulphate

2.5

Gomosty

1.0

Ammonium sulfate

1.2

05.06.2018

Flag leaf

Ammonium sulfate

0.4

Gomosty

1.0

Urea

6.0

Mg sulphate

2.0

06/18/2018

Earing / blooming

Urea

6.0

Mg sulphate

2

Polyphide 19-19-19

1.5

07/02/2018

Milky wax ripeness

Urea

6.0

Mg sulphate

2.0

 

Table 4. Scheme of processing the company microfertilizers

"Haifa Group" (experience)

date of processing

Culture Development Phase

Experience Options

(working fluid consumption 200 l / ha)

Norm,

kg / ha

04.05.2018

Tillering

Poly Feed 19-19-19 + 1 + ME

five

05.31.2018

Sub flag / flag

Poly Feed 6-15-38 + 3 + ME

four

06/21/2018

End of flowering

Poly Feed 19-19-19 + 1 + ME

five

Research results

To assess the effectiveness of applied agrochemical treatments during the growing season, a number of measurements and counts were taken. As a result of morphological counts, it was found that microfertilizers contributed to an increase in the height of winter wheat plants by 2-3 cm and a decrease in the number of tags on the analyzed area.O ther autonomic parameters (number of productive stems, total and productive tillering) were not significantly different between control and experimental one (Table 5, Fig.3).

 

Table 5. Biometric parameters of winter wheat plants

Option

 

Analysis of sheaves (with 0.1 m 2 )

The number of productive plants, pcs.

The number of stems, pieces

The number of productive stems, pieces

Total bushiness, pcs. on 1 plant

Productive bushiness

PC. on 1 plant

Average plant height, cm

Average length

spike, see

The average number of grains per ear, pcs.

Control

43.1

88.4

54.7

2.1

1,3

89.0

7.0

18.0

Experience

43.2

80.1

54.4

1.9

1.4

92.0

8.0

21.2

Deviation from control, in units of ism

0.1

-8,3

-0,3

-0,2

0.1

3.0

1.0

3.2

% of control

100

91

99

90

104

103

114

118

NDS 05

0.4

4.2

0.8

0.1

0.1

1.0

0.3

1.2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the experimental version with the use of Poly-Fe microfertilizers, a significant increase in spike indicators was observed, which determine the productivity of plants: spike length, the number of grains in the ear, and 1000 pulses.

Fig.5. Indicators of winter wheat productivity depending on the variant of foliar applications.

It can be concluded that microfertilizers have a more significant effect on the generative sphere of plants, contributing to a more complete realization of their reproductive potential .This determines the overall yield (Fig.5).In the experimental variant with the use of three-fold treatment with microfertilizers of the Poly-Feed brand, it was 3.0 c / ha higher than in the control and averaged 49 c / ha.

Another important point when using fertilizers is their effect on product quality.Therefore, in our studies after harvesting, a detailed study of the quality indicators of wheat grain was carried out.It is known that the quality of grain is determined by a number of parameters, including technological and baking indicators characterizing the consumer properties of wheat: natural weight, glassiness, gluten content, IDC, PE (drop number), flour strength, bread volume, baking rating and others [13] .

Fig.6. The effect of Poly-Feed treatments on the “nature” of winter wheat grain.

 

One of the indicators associated with the size and density of the grain, weighing 1000 seeds, is the natural weight. For the wheat grain, the basic and restrictive norms of the full-scale weight are 750 and 710 g / l.To achieve these levels, the degree of favorable weather conditions in the phases of loading and ripening of grains is very important. A positive effect on this indicator have a good moisture availability of the growing season and feeding .In the experiment , we observed an increase in the grain size (mass of 1000 grains, control - 41.7, experiment - 45.2 g), which also affected the natural weight, which amounted to 797.8 units in the experimental version with 770.1 units - in control (Fig.6).

In our country, wheat is mainly grown for processing into flour, so the quality of the grain, which largely depends on the quality of the flour, its baking properties, has special requirements. One of the indicators of the quality of grain, which is the most important for millers and bakers, is the number of falls.The “drop number” (PE) indicator is an indicator of the activity of the alpha-amylase enzyme in the grain.With high activity of alpha-amylase in flour, baked bread is obtained with a sticky crumb and a reduced volume. Wheat grain is considered full-fledged and suitable for the needs of bakery with the number of falling more than 200 s (the highest, first and secondclasses). The average value of this indicator in our study was 297 in the control , in the experimental variant it was 364 seconds (Fig.7) .This suggests that the resulting grain is of good quality and can be used for production purposes.

Fig.7. The effect of sheet treatments with Poly-Feed on the “number of drops” of winter wheat grain.

Important in the composition of wheat grain is the amount of protein. Its content is on average: in soft winter wheat - 11.6; in the soft spring - 12.7; in solid - 12.5 with fluctuations from 8.0 to 22.0%. With a low content of total protein (below 11%), insufficient amounts of two gluten proteins form in wheat. At the same time there is a decrease in baking qualities. It is known that the level of soil nutrition with nutrients significantly affects the protein content.In our study, the protein content did not differ between the experimental and control variants and was 12.3-12.4% ( Table.6) .

Table 6. Qualitative indicators of winter wheat grain

Option

Bunker humidity,%

Protein,

%

Gluten,%

IDK

Control

12.2

12.4

20.6

85.1

Experience

13.2

12.3

20.4

84.0

Deviation from control

in units

1.0

-0,1

-0,2

-1.0

% of control

109

100

99

99

NDS 05

0.4

0.3

0.9

1.5

 

The amount of gluten is characterized by the content of gluten proteins in the grain (glutenins and gliadins), which make up about 80% of all wheat flour proteins and are mostly concentrated in the endosperm of grain. The indicator can vary in a very wide range from 18 to 40% or more. The gluten content in the grain of soft wheat 36% or more corresponds to the highest class of food grain; 32% - 1st class; 28% - 2nd; 23% - 3rd; below 23 to 18% - to the 4th class, less than 18% - to the 5th.Thus, according to the gluten content, the obtained grain in both variants of the experiment corresponded to the fourth class.

Elastic properties of gluten are also determined by the strain gauge (IDK).For the higher, 1st and 2nd grades, the 1st group of gluten quality is required with indications of 45-70 IDK units. For the 3rd and 4th grades, the 2nd group is allowed - satisfactory weak (80-100 units) or satisfactorily strong (20-40 units). Indications of more than 100 and less than 20 units are considered unsatisfactory. In our case, the IDK indicator was 84-85.1 units, which is permissible for grains of 3-4 classes.

Comparative analysis on the effectiveness of Poly-feed fertilizers on winter wheat the studies carried out on different types of soils in the Republic of Tatarstan in 2017 (with e paradise l e a n a i days with p e r e c y l INIST I) [14] and Orel 2018 godu (leached chernozem) indicates that the sheet feeding of winter wheat microfertilizer Poly-feed help to increase grain size - to 8-21%, an increase in the total mass of grain from one ear by 10–18%, i.e. improve the productive characteristics of the ear, which generally affects the grain yield, while not worsening, and in some indicators and improving its quality.

Conclusion

Application in the technology of cultivation of winter wheat Moskovskaya-56 on leached chernozem in the conditions of the Oryol region double foliar feeding with microfertilizer Poly-Feed 19-19-19 + 1MgO + ME in the tillering stage and at the end of flowering and a single Poly-Feed 6-15-38 + 3 + IU in the sub-flag phase - flag leaf, increases the height of plants, as well as the size of the ear, the formation of a larger number of grains in the ear, their greater mass (mass of 1000 seeds) and their best quality (nature of the grain and the number of falling) .This generally provides a reliable increase in the yield of winter wheat.It should be noted that the adverse weather conditions under which the development of winter wheat plants took place in 2018 and their productive properties were established were leveled due to foliar feeding.It is known that under unfavorable conditions, the feeding of plants from the soil is difficult due to the limited activity of the root system, both at low and high temperatures, during drought, as well as with low oxygen supply of the soil due to heavy precipitation and flooding. Root activity is also reduced in the reproductive phases, in which the majority of photoassimilates are transferred in favor of the reproductive sphere, rather than the respiration of the roots. Therefore, leaf top-dressings are the most reliable way to optimize plant nutrition and speed up plant operation at certain physiological stages [16,17].

Due to the relatively low additional costs for foliar feeding, the use of complex fertilizers Poly-Feed 19-19-19 + 1MgO + ME and Poly-Feed 6-15-38 + 3 + IU on winter wheat is economically feasible and can bring additional economic income due to increase yields and reduce the number of treatments, while not worsening, and in some indicators, and improving the milling quality of grain. Based on the marginal level of minimum prices for grain of the 2018 harvest in 2018-2019 for 4th grade soft wheat, established by the Ministry of Agriculture of Russia within 6909-7600 rubles / ton (including VAT and excluding VAT), the additional economic income of applying fertilizer brand Poly-feed will be 2.07-2.28 thousand rubles / ha relative to the base technology.

Thus, at present, domestic agricultural producers have all the opportunities for the mass introduction of intensive sheet feeding technologies into practice.To do this, you must have special sprayers, high-quality water-soluble fertilizers, which include microfertilizers Poly- Feed company "Haifa Chemicals."

Positive results on the use of microfertilizers of the Poly-Feed trademark were also obtained on other crops.