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Growth and bulbing of garlic as influenced by low temperature and storage period treatments

Abstract: The effects of pre-planting low temperature storage and period length of seed cloves on bulbing process of two garlic Allium sativum L genotypes were studied during two successive experiments (2009/2010 and 2010/2011). The whole bulb of garlic genotypes (‘Egaseed 1 and Clone17) were stored at 10°C, 15°C (cold-treatments) or at room temperature (27°C) for 15, 21 and 30 days before planting. After storage, the effects of temperature and storage time on the sprouting of garlic cloves and internal sprout growth rate % under lab experiments were studied. Also, the subsequent effects of pre-plant storage treatments on germination %, growth behavior, cloving and yield were investigated at the Experimental Farm of Mallawy Agric. Res. Station, Horticulture Research. Inst., Giza, Egypt. The data revealed that, pre-plant low temperature treatments of bulbs significantly affected the behavior of "Egaseed1"(red bulb color) and "Clone17". (white bulb color) under laboratory conditions. Previously storage temperature (10°C) and period (30 days) treatment for the tested garlic, cv. "Egaseed1" and "Clone17" resulted in a significant increase in the internal sprout length (cm) and internal sprout growth rate %. For field studies, garlic "clone17" at 15˚C for 30 days gave the best significantly results for increasing the germination %. Significant differences between cultivars for its response to storage temperature and storage period treatments were found. The highest increase in fresh yield, cured yield, average bulb weight, bulb diameter (cm) and number of cloves/bulb were obtained with garlic, cv. "Egaseed1" at 15˚C for 15 days and at 10˚C for 21 days of garlic "Clone17". Whereas, the heaviest clove weight (g) were obtained when garlic bulbs of the two tested genotypes were stored at 10˚C for 30 days before planting. Results show that the important of cold pre-treatment (low temperature treatments (10-150C) and length of storage period for improving germination %, enhancing garlic yield, bulb weight, bulb diameter and clove weight. These results were dependent upon the cultivar behavior.

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