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A fertilization program for apples in Spain

Soil type: light to medium, good drainage, pH 6.5 - 8.
Annual irrigation rate: ~6,000 m3/ha.
Plant Population: 400-600 trees/ha.
Expected yield: 45 t/ha.

 
 
 

Fertigation: Recommended rates of nutrients and fertilizers

 
Month

Crop requirements (kg/ha)

Recommended Fertilizers (kg/ha)

N

P2O5

K2O

MgO

Multi-K

MAP

AN

Magnisal

March

15

10

20

0

44

16

22

0

April

20

15

30

5

65

25

14

32

May

32

20

40

5

87

33

0

32

June

35

10

40

10

87

16

45

63

July

20

5

35

10

76

8

7

63

August

6

0

5

8

11

0

0

51

September

6

5

5

5

11

8

0

32

October

10

5

10

0

22

8

18

0

Total annual

140

70

185

45

403

114

106

273

 
 
 
Multi-K – Potassium nitrate (13-0-46)
MAP – mono-ammonium phosphate (0-61-0)
Amm. Nit – Ammonium Nitrate (34-0-0)
Magnisal – Magnesium nitrate (10.8-0-0-15.8)
 
 
 

A general guideline for splitting K application

 
Growth stage

Share of K2O at stage (%)

Recommended rate (kg/ha of K2O)

Leaf emergence

15

23

Flowering

20

30

Fruit-set

25

37

Fruit growth

25

37

Fruit maturation

15

23

Total

100

150

 
 
 
 
 

Foliar feeding

Fall is an excellent season to prepare the tree to next season requirements in N, K and Fe. As long as foliage is green and active it will readily absorb these nutrients applied by foliar sprays.
 
 
 

Macro elements removed by 1 ton marketable product

 

N

P

K

Ca

Mg

S

-------------------------------------- Kg/ton ------------------------------------------

0.6

0.7

1.3

 

0.9

 
 
 
 
Source: Kinoch: VOLHOUBARE LANDBOU, RSA. Processed by Frans Lourens,Haifa, RSA May, 1999.
 
 
 

Sufficient nutrient range of apples*

 

Element

Nutrient range (%)

Element

Nutrient range (ppm)

N

1.9-2.4

Mn

31-150

P

0.17-0.28

Fe

35-150

K

1.2-1.8

B

28-50

Ca

1.3-1.7

Cu

5-10

Mg

0.24-0.36

Mo

0.5-1.5

   

Zn

20-50

 
 
* Leaf samples taken between July 15 and August 15 from Mid-shoot leaves on current season’s growth in accordance with instruction provided with the plant analysis.
Source:  Fertilizing Fruit Crops – Ohio Cooperative Extension Service, The Ohio state University p. 11.
 
 
 
 

Apples – Mineral analysis values

 
 

Mature leaves

Nutrient

Average value

Critical level

 

(%)

N

2.30

1.70

S

0.19

0.08

P

0.30

0.18

K

2.00

1.20

Mg

0.40

0.25

Ca

2.00

1.30

Na

0.02

 
 

(ppm)

Fe

90

15

Al

40

 

Mn

140

35

B

60

35

Cu

20

5

Zn

60

20

Mo

0.8

0.05

 
 
 
 
 

Plant analysis guide

Nutrient sufficiency ranges (source: A & L, Agronomy Handbook, Ankerman & Large Eds.)
 
 
Apples

N

S

P

K

Mg

Ca

Na

B

Zn

Mn

Fe

Cu

Al

Mo

------------------------ % -------------------------

--------------- p.p.m ---------------

From

1.75

0.15

0.15

1.20

0.20

1.00

0.01

25

15

30

100

6

   
To

2.75

0.30

0.40

2.00

0.35

1.60

0.15

50

60

180

200

25

 

 
 
 
 
 
 

Plant tissue sampling procedures:

 
Stage of growth Plant part
Five to eight weeks after full bloom 4 to 8 leaves from spurs or near base of current season’s growth
 
 
 
 
 

Base dressing recommendations (kg/hectare)

 
Year

N

P2O5

K2O

CaO

MgO

1st year

48

48

36

48

6

2nd year

42

48

63

36

9

3rd year

50

60

90

40

12.5

 
 
Source: recommendations of Agro-Nutrientes Especiales (ANE). (February,2000)